The problem of migration in EU

The problem of migration for a long time has become one of the most important for the European Union (EU). Since 2015, it is on the agenda of the leaders of European countries and is the first priority topic of their meetings with each other. The migration problem caused deep disagreements between the European leaders and marked the boundaries in which they are ready to cooperate. She also influenced the domestic political situation in European countries – populist movements are trying to play the phobias caused by her.
The migration crisis, which peaked in mid-2015, was a surprise for the European Union. The Europeans did not recognize the signs of the impending catastrophe and failed to take adequate measures, since up to that point they had avoided seeking a common response to the migration challenge. At the end, the actions were dictated by the desire to regain control over what was happening as soon as possible, and above all the situation in the Western Balkans, through which the bulk of refugees and migrants from the Middle East came to Europe.
In February and March 2016, the European Council, consisting of heads of state and government of the EU member states, quickly adopted a whole package of measures to overcome the crisis. European leaders agreed to close the Balkan migration route, strengthen the protection of the external borders of the EU and conclude an agreement with Turkey, which was and remains a transit country for the vast majority of refugees from the Middle East. Thanks to these measures, the Europeans regained control over the situation, the flow of migrants has significantly decreased. Inspired by success, Europe decided that, following the found recipe, it could cope with any migration crisis in the future.
But is her optimism really justified? After all, the main issues related to migration remained unresolved: in the Middle East political chaos still prevails, which led to a massive influx of migrants to Europe in 2015; The migration, caused more likely by economic reasons, in particular from the countries of Africa, continues as usual. As for the differences between the European countries, they have intensified because of the growing domestic political tensions and concerns of the population, which believes that migration threatens its security and social cohesion. Instead of discussing how to overcome differences, European leaders in the bud are stopping any attempts to find a principled solution to the problems facing the European migration policy, and are limited to only short-term measures.
For the reasons mentioned, the EU’s migration policy has not yet been fully formed. To give a more powerful collective response to the migration challenge, Europe needs to overcome two contradictions: to convince all countries to act together in an area where each of them has previously sought to defend its own interests independently; trust the EU despite a political fashion that requires skepticism about everything coming from Brussels.